Is it wet all across the door opening, or does it seem to be coming from the sides of the door. Is there evidence of the trim, jamb or baseboard being wet along the sides of the door? One thing that's obvious in the pictures is almost certainly the main problem- the pad outside the door seems to be at the same level as the floor inside. This is bad and is a design/build flaw. You should have a 2 drop between the floor level inside and the pad outside. So that's one thing that could be corrected. That way, if you have a 2 lake out there, it will just reach that pad inside. It gives you a little breathing room during heavy rains. I can't tell much from the other photos, (would be nice to see some from farther back, showing the whole side of the house) but one thing that's obvious on top is the detailing around the lintel above the door. It's fine to caulk underneath the lintel, but the top of the lintel where it meets the brick should almost always be left open so that any water behind the brick has a way out. Also there is no way to tell if the door has been set into a bead of sealant (should have been done during installation) , sealing it to the cement pad on bottom. Anytime I have ever seen a door in front of a drain have a problem it has always been because the drain can't drain the amount of water coming in fast enough, so you get a lake outside which a door won't prevent from coming in. No door is equipped to prevent water from coming in if there is a 2 deep lake outside the door. Water obviously will seek its own level and find it's way in. A sill pan, when properly installed, will prevent minor water infiltration from coming in the rough opening. A sill pan is limited by the height of it's interior lip. In other words, a 1 high sill pan isn't going to keep water out if there's a lake more than 1 deep outside the door. And it's too late for a sill pan unless you plan to remove the door and reinstall it. Caulking the interior side of the door to the floor isn't a real good solution but it's better than nothing. My guess is that this is a 3 part problem. No 2 drop outside the door, no sill pan and a clogged or slow drain, especially since you say it only seems to do it during heavy rains. Get it checked out. If there is a way to cover that stairway to limit the amount of rain that goes down there that would probably be helpful too. Taking the door out and demolishing the pad around the drain, placing it 2 lower, will be the only real way to fix this problem. I once got called to a house where I installed a basement window in a large window well. They said water was leaking in. When I went there during a rainstorm, there was water about halfway up on the window in the window well. When I looked up, I noticed the gutter was completely full.... and overflowing at a dip in the gutter DIRECTLY OVER this window well... No wonder it was leaking. DUH. I cleaned out the gutters and downspouts, end of problem. So maybe check your gutters. If there are any valleys on the roof be sure there are deflectors to prevent heavy rain from shooting over the gutter.
Fiberglass doors have a foam core that helps control heat transfer. It also will not dent should you throw an errant rock up out of the pathway while you are mowing the lawn. If the sun is the major factor in your purchase, I would consider getting a door that will accommodate a storm door. The storm door will act as a buffer between the finish on the door itself and the elements. If your door has side lights, you need to order the door specifically to accept storm doors. They will add an additional molding piece between the door and glass portion to attach the storm door to.
Agree with all the comments so far. I sold doors for 5 yrs at HD. A FG door won't rust or dent but they cost more than steel. The finished doors like you linked will normally do better than one you stain yourself, but they do require regular maintenance. You CANNOT let it slide. Once the finish starts to degrade you will have to completely refinish or paint. I think painted doors stand up to the weather better and are easier to re-finish when the time comes. One note on the storm door....it is NOT recommended for FG doors that receive more than 4 hrs of direct sun each day. At least it used to be, doubt things have changed much. Fullview (all glass) storm doors are the worst. The temp between the doors can reach 140-150 degrees in full sun which can warp the plastic glass frame and harm the finish.
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